2017: The End of the Bush-Obama Era

January 19, 2017

Let’s Inaugurate a New Paradigm in US-China-Russia Relations

by Diane Sare

The 15 years immediately following the British/Saudi run and financed 9/11 attack on our nation will be remembered as one of the darkest periods of American history. It was during this time that our nation sank to unspeakable depths, previously unimaginable. We have been in a state of perpetual war against many nations; not merely Iraq and Afghanistan, but undeclared wars of regime change and destabilization have been perpetrated in Libya, Somalia, Yemen, Syria, Ukraine, and the list goes on. We went from barbaric methods of torturing prisoners, as in Abu Ghraib under Cheney and Bush, to targeting and murdering people remotely with drones under Obama. During this time, American life expectancy began to drop, with increased death rates due to diseases of despair: suicide, alcoholism, and drug overdose. Instead of coming together to protect their people from the ravages of insane presidencies, the state governments plunged into the Dark Age abyss with measures to legalize drugs and “physician-assisted suicide.”

The victory of Donald Trump over Obama-clone Hillary Clinton in the 2016 Presidential Election, presents us with a great moment of opportunity. This result was not an American phenomenon caused by Russian hacking. It was the lawful American manifestation of a global revolution in a world grown weary of British Imperial methods. It followed the Brexit vote in the UK, a similar vote in Italy, the election of President Rodrigo Duterte in the Philippines, and perhaps most importantly, the remarkable measures taken by Russian President Vladimir Putin, who announced at the 2015 UN General Assembly his intent to intervene in Syria to actually defeat terrorism, starting with ISIS. Putin’s actions, taken simultaneously with China’s One Belt One Road initiative to lift billions of people out of poverty, have created a New Paradigm where nations can collaborate, not as in the old geopolitical domain, but in mutual self-interest, or as President Xi has said, “win-win cooperation.”

In 1989, a similar opportunity—although on a much smaller scale—presented itself when the Berlin Wall came down. That opportunity was squandered because the greatest genius America has yet produced, Lyndon LaRouche, was framed up and jailed, following a phony trial accompanied by a spectacular media campaign of lies and defamation, just months after his October, 1988 Berlin Press Conference in which he had proposed the reunification of Germany. The George H.W. Bush Administration, no doubt under orders from London, kept Mr. LaRouche in prison for five long years, as well as targeting and incarcerating many of LaRouche’s associates, and illegally “bankrupting” his newspaper, in a desperate effort to prevent Mr. LaRouche’s policies for global economic development from being adopted.

As a result of this political witch hunt, the reunification of Germany, which did occur, exactly as LaRouche had forecast, did not lead to a new era of East-West collaboration and technology transfer for the benefit of mankind. Instead, key figures like Deutsche Bank head Alfred Herrhausen were assassinated, and wars in Iraq and the Balkans ensued. LaRouche’s wife, Helga Zepp-LaRouche, became the champion of these policies from Germany, and after LaRouche’s release from prison (under President Bill Clinton) she and Mr. LaRouche travelled to China and Russia, respectively, planting the seeds for what is now on the table 25 years later.

Therefore, Americans of good will, who want our nation to prosper, and to once again join the ranks of the civilized world must heed the words of Lyndon LaRouche at this juncture. On the reverse of this broadsheet are LaRouche’s “Four Laws,” which are to be understood as a modern and advanced presentation of founding father Alexander Hamilton’s four major papers as Treasury Secretary, on the subjects of Public Credit, National Banking and Manufactures. Study them carefully, and note that the first step is the immediate reinstatement of the Glass-Steagall Act.

But, Glass-Steagall is not the end of the program. It merely creates the conditions for the transformation of the U.S. economy from the junk heap it has recently become, to a powerhouse of productivity and mass employment, where Americans can not only earn a decent living, but can create the conditions where their children can become geniuses in art and science.

Mr. LaRouche has emphasized that the policies chosen by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, especially in his first 100 days, are the model for an approach to the desperate state we find ourselves in. Roosevelt took a nation with over 25% unemployment, where people were literally dying of starvation, or diseases spread by eating out of garbage dumps, and turned it into the most productive nation on the planet. Contrary to popular opinion, it was not WWII that generated the recovery. The recovery was well under way before we finally entered the war in 1941 after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Under FDR’s leadership, the American war mobilization brought the economy to a new level, and quickly broke all records of industrial production ever even considered.

China has invited us repeatedly to join the “One Belt One Road” or as Mrs. LaRouche has called it, the “New Silk Road.” Doing so would allow us to join in solving the greatest challenges facing mankind, from the development of fusion energy, to figuring out how to prevent a major comet or asteroid from obliterating us in the near or distant future. Ensuring that every single human being on the planet has access to clean drinking water and electricity would be obvious, under those conditions. That incoming President Donald Trump has expressed an interest in collaboration with China and Russia indicates a great potential for rapid progress world wide and inside the United States. In the words of President Franklin Roosevelt in his First inaugural Address, “This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper.” As Lyndon LaRouche has advised, let us act in that tradition.

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The Foreign Power Corrupting U.S. Politics is London, Not Moscow

by Helga Zepp-LaRouche

Helga Zepp-LaRouche is the chairwoman of the German political party Civil Rights Movement Solidarity (BüSo)

The unprecedented hysteria of the mainstream media and the neocons on both sides of the Atlantic over the election of Donald Trump is material for a first-class object lesson on the real dynamic now unfolding on the global strategic stage. It makes crystal clear, even for the most naïve adherent of political correctness, that what is happening has nothing to do with the interests of one party, or one state, against another. It has to do with the methods used by a collapsing empire against the emergence of a new paradigm, the precise content of which has not yet been clearly defined, but which nonetheless represents the rejection of the system of globalization.

Precisely on the eve of Trump's first press conference as President-elect, the U.S. television network CNN, and Buzzfeed, an Internet media company, created a huge sensation by breaking the story of a 35-page dossier which, in addition to reporting unspeakable anecdotes about Trump's alleged sexual habits, claimed that there is evidence that Trump is a de facto Russian agent. After the campaign—long since contested by cyber-experts—that Russia had hacked emails of the Democratic National Committee, systematically smeared Hillary Clinton, and thereby helped Trump get elected, this new action is intended to lay the groundwork—even before Trump occupies the White House—for a rapid impeachment.

The author of the dossier is Christopher Steele, a Russian expert from MI6, the British foreign intelligence service; he concocted the dossier in the summer of 2016. It circulated for months in U.S. media circles and was considered so dubious that no one was willing to publish it during the hot phase of the election campaign. It was given directly to FBI Director James Comey, and given to the FBI again by Senator John McCain, after he heard former British ambassador to Moscow Sir Andrew Wood praise Steele and his “integrity” on the sidelines of a security conference in Canada.

After the surge of propaganda alleging the theft of the U.S. election by Russia, and Trump's declaration that he found Julian Assange of Wikileaks more credible than the U.S. intelligence services, the three U.S. intelligence chiefs—Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, CIA Director John Brennan, and FBI Director James Comey—briefed the U.S. Senate, as well as President Obama and President-elect Trump, on their version of the story. The 35-page dossier would have played no role, because it was not credible, had these three intelligence chiefs not appended a two-page summary of it to their documents. The dubious dossier was thus given the status of serious intelligence information, and that was apparently the starting gun for CNN, Buzzfeed, and then the rest of the media to publish the whole 35-page dossier.

A day later Clapper telephoned Trump to stress, after the fact, that U.S. intelligence services were not the source of the dossier, and that he could not vouch for its accuracy or inaccuracy. In a highly unusual move, he then published a written declaration to this effect. Thus, after the three intelligence chiefs themselves had kicked off the escalation, Clapper carried out a maneuver known in these circles as a CYA operation (cover your ass)—often called more elegantly in German, a “diplomatic excuse.”

Whose World Is Disintegrating?

What then is the issue here? Eric Denécé, director of the French Center for Intelligence Research, an independent think tank, published the following analysis under the heading, “A Shocking Lack of Proof,” after he had read the report by the Department of Homeland Security and the FBI on the alleged Russian intervention into the U.S. election campaign:

The Washington Establishment was taken totally by surprise by Trump's victory and understood that a “great cleanup” would occur, in which many of its members would lose their political positions and economic spinoffs connected to their international alliances.1

This assessment is accurate, but characterizes only one aspect of the situation. Apparently the trans-Atlantic neoliberal establishment is having a very hard time accepting the fact that Trump was democratically elected. Their “world is coming apart,” as German Chancellor Angela Merkel put it; they are “very shocked,” as her Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen expressed it. The world that is coming apart is the unipolar world which the neocons of the Bush Administration put into effect when the Soviet Union broke up. At that point the neocons proclaimed the “Project for a New American Century” to consolidate a world empire on the basis of the Anglo-American special relationship.

Governments that would not buckle under to this unipolar world would be eliminated over the course of time through a policy of regime change—for example, by color revolutions financed from the outside, as Victoria Nuland unblushingly admitted in the case of Ukraine. The U.S. State Department alone spent $5 billion there on NGOs. But this policy also involved direct military intervention under the pretext of the defense of democracy and human rights, as in such cases as Iraq, Libya, and Syria. And naturally, Russia and China were the ultimate targets of this regime change policy.

The European Union bureaucracy was the unnamed junior partner in this arrangement, a beneficiary of the globalization system and itself eager for maximal imperial expansion, as British diplomat Robert Cooper openly admitted,2Robert Cooper, “The Post-Modern State and the World Order” (2002) was reprinted in full in the Guardian under the headline, “The New Liberal Imperialism”: and only entering into competition with the dominance of the City of London and Wall Street.

A prerequisite for membership in the unipolar world's Establishment Club was naturally the adoption of the official “narrative” that all these destabilizations of democratically elected governments and all of these wars were about “freedom,” “democracy,” and ”human rights,” while those targeted were always “dictators” and demons. And obviously, when it came to analyzing the causes of the refugee crisis, all those who were wearing these unipolar glasses could not get beyond just naming the concept, because otherwise, it would mean you would have to condemn the illegitimate wars that have cost the lives of millions of people, and then you would be thrown out of the Club.

And now we have in Trump someone who has won the U.S. election and who, as Obama said of Putin, does not belong to “the team”; agrees with Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard and an array of conservative military figures that that these regime-change wars must be stopped; and even, as the ultimate desecration of taboos, wants to re-establish normal relations with Russia!

The well-regarded U.S. investigative reporter Robert Parry compared the methods being used by the American intelligence services against Trump to J. Edgar Hoover's blackmail tactics. But the crude methods of Christopher Steele are also reminiscent of the “Troopergate” scandal inspired by British intelligence against President Bill Clinton, through which it sought from the beginning of his presidency, with a certain amount of success, to present Clinton as an unrestrained sex addict. This set the stage, so to speak, for the later Lewinsky affair, also launched by British intelligence, which aimed at destroying Clinton's presidency,

Out in the Open

What is spectacular about the operation against Trump, however, is that British intelligence and its American counterparts, which have operated for decades as spooks in the shadows, have now been forced to display openly their total nakedness. The essentially dilettantish operation—conducted by Steele, the man in charge of uncovering the Fifa corruption scandal and the principal MI6 agent in the affair of Litvinenko's murder—revealed the direct intervention of the British Empire, for which the term “globalization” is only a synonym, into the internal affairs of the United States.

This empire is something other than the nations of the United States and Great Britain. It is the oligarchical forces exerting their power through the trans-Atlantic neoliberal financial system and the military defense of the unipolar world order, and they don't care a whit about the general welfare of the populations in whose nations they happen to live. A global revolution is underway against this empire, which found expression in the Brexit, just as it did in Trump's victory and the “no” to Renzi's referendum in Italy.

The assertion that Putin stole the election from Hillary Clinton, or that he will meddle in the coming elections in several European countries, is the collapsing empire's desperate attempt to somehow hold on to the authority to control the narrative.

Meanwhile, the new paradigm is developing in the form of a new world economic order, in which the BRICS countries and China's New Silk Road policy are offering win-win cooperation to all of the world's nations, in which all can only gain through the benefit of all—each through “the advantage of the other.” If Trump succeeds in working with this new combination—which will only become clear after he is in office—it could mean a new era for mankind, in which sovereign nations work together for the future of mankind as a community of common destiny, and the era of empires is finally buried.

PETITION: President Trump—Commit to Glass-Steagall by the State of the Union

The following petition was originally drafted by a group entitled “Our Revolution in Northwest Ohio.” With their commitment to unify the entire nation, they have issued a call to all groups, e.g. the “Tea Party, Republicans, Democrats, Labor and Business,” to rally around the necessary first step of passing Glass-Steagall legislation. Their effort is consistent with the aims of LaRouchePAC, and we are circulating their petition as part of a national mobilization for the immediate passage of Glass-Steagall legislation by the House and Senate, to be signed into law by President Trump.

In addition to the reinstatement of Glass-Steagall, LaRouchePAC is calling for the full implementation of LaRouche's Four Laws: 1. Reinstate FDR’s Glass-Steagall banking separation, 2. Return to a Hamiltonian System of national banking, 3. Invest federal credit for productive employment, and 4. Launch a crash program for fusion power. These four laws, as laid out in a resolution recently passed by the Illinois State House in June, 2016, are the four critical steps to rebuild the American economy.

We are asking every citizen to rally around this economic program with the greatest urgency. These four laws are the only effective way to address both the dire economic and financial crisis after decades of destructive policies, as well as activate the potential for great development, as we now see throughout Asia with China’s New Silk Road Initiative.

Sign this petition. Share it with your friends, family, and networks. Each signed copy will be hand delivered to your Congressmen and Senators, as well as to “Our Revolution of Northwest Ohio” for their use as well.

As President Franklin Roosevelt stated at his first Inaugural Address, “This Nation asks for action, and action now!”

Open Letter to President Donald Trump and to all members of Congress:

January, 2017

We the undersigned strongly feel the need for protecting our economy from another unnecessary market crash and recession like the one experienced in December of 2007. As you take office, the conditions for a collapse are too similar to those of 2007: rising asset values together with a lack of separation between FDIC insured banking and risk-investment brokering.

We applaud President Trump’s campaign statement in Charlotte, North Carolina, October 26, 2016, endorsing a call for "A 21st Century version of Glass-Steagall," and reintroducing a modern day Glass-Steagall Act. We trust that you understand that stabilizing the business climate and securing the assets as separate from Wall Street speculation is a key to prosperity during your administration.

To set the tone of discourse in Congress 2017, we ask that President Trump restate his support for a Glass-Steagall Act during the State of the Union address.

Be assured in doing so, you will find common ground with both the Republicans and the Democrats since both party platforms have the support of banking legislation that separates insured accounts from Wall Street speculation in their respective platforms.

Thank you for responding to the call from citizens, businesspersons, bankers and legislators as we move forward.


Put my name on it.


The Four New Laws to Save The U.S.A. Now!


by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr.

Published June 10, 2014

A PDF of this statement can be found here.

The following statement is for immediate action. The priority is assigned to all means and measures of public action, nationally and internationally, without reservation. That priority is existential for the policies of our republic, and for the general information of, and by all relevant circles world-wide, beginning this date of June 8, 2014.


The economy of the United States of America, and also that of the trans-Atlantic political-economic regions of the planet, are now under the immediate, mortal danger of a general, physical-economic, chain-reaction breakdown-crisis of that region of this planet as a whole. The name for that direct breakdown-crisis throughout those indicated regions of the planet, is the presently ongoing introduction of a general “Bail-in” action under the several, or more governments of that region: the effect on those regions, will be comparable to the physical-economic collapse of the post-“World War I” general collapse of the economy of the German Weimar Republic: but, this time, hitting, first, the entirety of the nation-state economies of the trans-Atlantic region, rather than some defeated economies within Europe. A chain-reaction collapse, to this effect, is already accelerating with an effect on the money-systems of the nations of that region. The present acceleration of a “Bail-in” policy throughout the trans-Atlantic region, as underway now, means mass-death suddenly hitting the populations of all nations within that trans-Atlantic region: whether directly, or by “overflow.”

The effects of this already prepared action by the monetarist interests of that so-designated region, unless stopped virtually now, will produce, in effect, an accelerating rate of genocide throughout that indicated portion of the planet immediately, but, also, with catastrophic “side effects” of comparable significance in the Eurasian regions.

The Available Remedies

The only location for the immediately necessary action which could prevent such an immediate genocide throughout the trans-Atlantic sector of the planet, requires the U.S. Government’s now immediate decision to institute four specific, cardinal measures: measures which must be fully consistent with the specific intent of the original U.S. Federal Constitution, as had been specified by U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton while he remained in office: (1) immediate re-enactment of the Glass-Steagall law instituted by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, without modification, as to principle of action. (2) A return to a system of top-down, and thoroughly defined, National Banking.

The actually tested, successful model to be authorized is that which had been instituted, under the direction of the policies of national banking which had been actually, successfully installed under President Abraham Lincoln’s superseding authority of a currency created by the Presidency of the United States (e.g. “Greenbacks”), as conducted as a national banking-and-credit-system placed under the supervision of the Office of the Treasury Secretary of the United States.

For the present circumstances, all other banking and currency policies, are to be superseded, or, simply, discontinued, as follows. Banks qualifying for operations under this provision, shall be assessed for their proven competence to operate as under the national authority for creating and composing the elements of this essential practice, which had been assigned, as by tradition, to the original office of Secretary of the U.S. Treasury under Alexander Hamilton. This means that the individual states of the United States are under national standards of practice, and, not any among the separate states of our nation.

(3) The purpose of the use of a Federal Credit-system, is to generate high-productivity trends in improvements of employment, with the accompanying intention, to increase the physical-economic productivity, and the standard of living of the persons and households of the United States. The creation of credit for the now urgently needed increase of the relative quality and quantity of productive employment, must be assured, this time, once more, as was done successfully under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, or by like standards of Federal practice used to create a general economic recovery of the nation, per capita, and for rate of net effects in productivity, and by reliance on the essential human principle, which distinguishes the human personality from the systemic characteristics of the lower forms of life: the net rate of increase of the energy-flux density of effective practice. This means intrinsically, a thoroughly scientific, rather than a merely mathematical one, and by the related increase of the effective energy-flux density per capita, and for the human population when considered as a whole. The ceaseless increase of the physical-productivity of employment, accompanied by its benefits for the general welfare, are a principle of Federal law which must be a paramount standard of achievement of the nation and the individual.1The substitution of “3. Cancel Green Policies ...” for the correct, “A Federal Credit-System,” is a travesty against the principles of any actually scientific principle. Only affirmative identifications of “Science,” could ever be allowed. Only, the previous title: “The Use of a Federal Credit System” is permitted. Eliminate all use of reference to “Green Policies:” the very use of that latter reference, is a fraudulent representation.

(4) “Adopt a Fusion-Driver ‘Crash Program.’” The essential distinction of man from all lower forms of life, hence, in practice, is that it presents the means for the perfection of the specifically affirmative aims and needs of human individual and social life. Therefore: the subject of man in the process of creation, as an affirmative identification of an affirmative statement of an absolute state of nature, is a permitted form of expression. Principles of nature are either only affirmation, or they could not be affirmatively stated among civilized human minds.

Given the circumstances of the United States, in particular, since the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy, and his brother, Robert, the rapid increase required for even any recovery of the U.S. economy, since that time, requires nothing less than measures taken and executed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his actual term in office. The victims of the evil brought upon the United States and its population since the strange death of President Harding, under Presidents Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover (like the terrible effects of the Bush-Cheney and Barack Obama administrations, presently) require remedies comparable to those of President Franklin Roosevelt while he were in office.

This means emergency relief measures, including sensible temporary recovery measures, required to stem the tide of death left by the Coolidge-Hoover regimes: measures required to preserve the dignity of what were otherwise the unemployed, while building up the most powerful economic and warfare capabilities assembled under the President Franklin Roosevelt Presidency for as long as he remained alive in office. This meant the mustering of the power of nuclear power, then, and means thermonuclear fusion now. Without that intent and its accomplishment, the population of the United States in particular, faces, now, immediately, the most monstrous disaster in its history to date. In principle, without a Presidency suited to remove and dump the worst effects felt presently, those created presently by the Bush-Cheney and Obama Presidencies, the United States were soon finished, beginning with the mass-death of the U.S. population under the Obama Administration’s recent and now accelerated policies of practice.

There are certain policies which are most notably required, on that account, now, as follows:

Vernadsky on Man & Creation

V.I. Vernadsky’s systemic principle of human nature, is a universal principle, which is uniquely specific to the crucial factor of the existence of the human species. For example: “time” and “space” do not actually exist as a set of metrical principles of the Solar system; their admissible employment for purposes of communication is essentially a nominal presumption. Since competent science for today can be expressed only in terms of the unique characteristic of the human species’ role within the known aspects of the universe, the human principle is the only true principle known to us for practice: the notions of space and time are merely useful imageries.


The essential characteristic of the human species, is its distinction from all other species of living processes: that, as a matter of principle, which is rooted scientifically, for all competent modern science, on the foundations of the principles set forth by Filippo Brunelleschi (the discoverer of the ontological minimum), Nicholas of Cusa (the discovery of the ontological maximum), and the positive discovery by mankind, by Johannes Kepler, of a principle coincident with the perfected Classical human singing scale adopted by Kepler, and the elementary measure of the Solar System within the still larger universe of the Galaxy, and higher orders in the universe.

Or, similarly, later, the modern physical-scientific standard implicit in the argument of Bernhard Riemann, the actual minimum (echoing the principle of Brunelleschi), of Max Planck, the actual maximum of the present maximum, that of Albert Einstein; and, the relatively latest, consequent implications of the definition of human life by Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky. These values are, each relative absolutes of measurement of man’s role within the knowledge of the universe.

This set of facts pertains to the inherent fraud of the merely mathematicians and the modernist “musical performers” since the standard of the relevant paragon for music, Johannes Brahms (prior to the degenerates, such as the merely mathematicians, such as David Hilbert and the true model for every modern Satan, such as Bertrand Russell, or Tony Blair).

The knowable measure, in principle, of the difference between man and all among the lower forms of life, is found in what has been usefully regarded as the naturally upward evolution of the human species, in contrast to all other known categories of living species. The standard of measurement of these compared relationships, is that mankind is enabled to evolve upward, and that categorically, by those voluntarily noëtic powers of the human individual will.

Except when mankind appears in a morally and physically degenerate state of behavior, such as within the cultures of the tyrants Zeus, the Roman Empire, and the British empire, presently: all actually sane cultures of mankind, have appeared, this far, in a certain fact of evolutionary progress from the quality of an inferior, to a superior species. This, when considered in terms of efficient effects, corresponds, within the domain of a living human practice of chemistry, to a form of systemic advances, even now leaps, in the chemical energy-flux density of society’s increase of the effective energy-flux-density of scientific and comparable expressions of leaps in progress of the species itself: in short, a universal physical principle of human progress.

The healthy human culture, such as that of Christianity, if they warrant this affirmation of such a devotion, for example, represents a society which is increasing the powers of its productive abilities for progress, to an ever higher level of per-capita existence. The contrary cases, the so-called “zero-growth” scourges, such as the current British empire are, systemically, a true model consistent with the tyrannies of a Zeus, or, a Roman Empire, or a British (better said) “brutish” empire, such as the types, for us in the United States, of the Bush-Cheney and Obama administrations, whose characteristic has been, concordant with that of such frankly Satanic models as that of Rome and the British empire presently, a shrinking human population of the planet, a population being degraded presently in respect to its intellectual and physical productivity, as under those U.S. Presidencies, most recently.

Chemistry: The Yardstick of History

We call it “chemistry.” Mankind’s progress, as measured rather simply as a species, is expressed typically in the rising power of the principle of human life, over the abilities of animal life generally, and relatively absolute superiority over the powers of non-living processes to achieve within mankind’s willful intervention to that intended effect. Progress exists so only under a continuing, progressive increase of the productive and related powers of the human species. That progress defines the absolute distinction of the human species from all others presently known to us. A government of people based on a policy of “zero-population growth and per capita standard of human life” is a moral, and practical abomination.

Man is mankind’s only true measure of the history of our Solar system, and what reposes within it. That is the same thing, as the most honored meaning and endless achievement of the human species, now within nearby Solar space, heading upward to mastery over the Sun and its Solar system, the one discovered (uniquely, as a matter of fact), by Johannes Kepler.

A Fusion economy, is the presently urgent next step, and standard, for man’s gains of power within the Solar system, and, later, beyond.